Hindi is thought to be the mother tongue of many North Indians mainly of those who are Hindi heart land. Let’s just look a generation back and ask whose mother tongue was Hindi especially in states which claim to be Hindi speaking. In UP, Bihar it was Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Maithili, Angika etc. which were mother tongues. Hindi was a lingua franca in this region. Madhya Pradesh has its own dialects and Hindi was in the same role here. Even this Hindi has so many versions in these states depending on the mother tongue of the speaker. Delhi’s Hindi has been thought as standard for so many years but this is the same in Delhi , Delhi’s Hindi has influence of the mother tongue of its speaker for example Punjabi . Now I am not arguing that no one speaks standard Hindi and Hindi Translation services are not offered on standardized manner. there are many but it is not their mother tongue. Now as a social change I see that people are leaving Bhojpuri, Mewati etc. the local languages and shifting to Hindi and English only as it’s not cool to speak the local dialect, primarily in context of languages of Eastern UP and Bihar. The language Nationalism makes space for Marathi, Bengali, and Tamil etc and a considerable demand of Marathi translation services,Bengali Translation Services,Tamil Translation services in delhi.
When we look at standard Hindi we can easily see two different forms. One of them is the Sanskritazied, standard Hindi which we can also call the official language Hindi or the Rajbhasha Hindi. The Hindi movement of early 19th century was the beginning of this sanskritaziation, soon this movement turned to be Hindi Hindu Hindustan Movement. The other of the two types is more of a lingua franca within India what Gandhi was calling Hindustani. This Hindustani or normal Hindi is a version of “KhadiBoli” of Mathura region known as Shurseni earlier. This is the language in which Ameer Khusaro wrote some of his verses. This form of Hindi has vocabulary from all sources like Sanskrit, Persian, and English etc. This form had been there for quite some time but as I mentioned earlier in the beginning of 19th century it was started to purify the language by taking out Persian and Arabic words and replacing them with Sanskrit root vocabulary.
In this historical light let’s look at today’s Hindi. Hindi had many dialects but scholars have different opinion if they should be called dialects or should be treated as Independent language. Some of these languages/ dialects are Awadhi, Bhojpuri, and Magahi etc. As I said earlier Hindi is no one’s mother tongue so when natives speak Hindi they bring their mother tongue’s tones, sounds and sometimes constructions.
The Hindi spoken in Delhi and the neighbouring areas is mainly influenced by Punjabi, Kahdi Boli dialects of western Uttar Pradesh and Haryanvi dialects.
The “Tu तू” usages
In standard Hindi तू Tu is not used. All the Hindi speaking states like UP,Bihar and MP discard this. This is thought to be rude and offensive. The standard versions of you are तुम Tum and आप Aap. However in Punjabi, Haryanvi and Western UP dialects it is common to use Tu. When natives of these languages speak Hindi they bring this construction in Hindi as informal/ casual version of You. In Delhi Hindi the use of Tu is very common because of the influence of these languages. Some of the teachers think that Tu is an intimate version of You and can also be used with kids.[i] In my opinion this could be true for Punjabi, Haryanvi and western UP dialects but not for Hindi. As I said earlier in Hindi speaking states this is very uncommon, rude and offensive. So as a Translation Company, this has be illustrated that this is more of a Delhi Hindi style and not a pan India Hindi phenomena. On the intimacy issue use of “Tu” is pretty much limited to the Bollywood songs, even the dialogues refer to the use of “Tum”. The format of Tu is:
Tu तू Tujh तुझ Teraa तेरा Teree तेरी Tere तेरे
The use of “ वो Wo”:
The grammatical Hindi version for He/She/ It/That is Vah वह. But colloquially वो Vo is used all the time. This could also be seen as the influence of these languages on Hindi.
The Verb root Imperatives:
It is believed that verb roots can be used with Tu as imperatives. This however is also believed to be rude and offensive in Hindi speaking states; however that is a Delhi Hindi speech pattern.
(तू) चाय पी। (तू) जल्दी चल।
Some other colloquial usages of Delhi Hindi Speech Pattern:
मेरे को instead of मुझे
उनने instead of उन्होंने from Western Up Dialects
आप कैसे हो? Instead of आप कैसे हैं?
Persian Suffix in Hindi:
Hindi had been borrowing a lot many words from Persian; generally these are commonly used words in our everyday speech. There are certain Persian Suffixes which are used in Hindi as Hindi:
शुदा coming from Persian verb Shudan – शादीशुदा, नौकरीशुदा
कार coming from Persian Verb Kardam- कलाकार, संगतकार, मूर्तिकार
Some other words from Awadhi/ Bhojpuri:
The famous “Bhaiyaa भईया” addressing comes from the lands of UP and Bihar which literally means “elder brother “in theses languages like Haryanvi BhaE भई, Marathi Bhaau भाऊ and Punjabi Pai पई.
Some other examples in this category could be “Kaam-Kaaj काम- काज” where kaam is coming from Persian and Kaaj is coming from Awadhi.
बैंक में काम- काज का समय:
In short Hindi cannot absolute and rigid; it absorbs the tones and colours of the regional languages which is very much evident on regional languages translation As far as the vocabulary is concerned, it had been taking words from various languages like Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit, English, and Awadhi etc. Sometimes words are made up also, some of them are ridiculous sometimes they reach the masses and become popular. This liveliness of Hindi is its power as a language.
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